U.S.-Based National Surveillance for Fidaxomicin Susceptibility of Clostridioides difficile-Associated Diarrheal Isolates from 2013 to 2016
C. M. Thorpe, L. A. McDermott, M. K. Tran, J. Chang, S. G. Jenkins, E. J. C. Goldstein, R. Patel, B. A. Forbes, S. Johnson, D. N. Gerding, D. R. Snydman
Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2019 Jun 24;63(7). pii: e00391-19.
PMID: 31085514 | PMCID: PMC6591623| DOI:10.1128/AAC.00391-19
In 2011, we initiated a sentinel surveillance network to assess changes in Clostridioides (formerly Clostridium) difficile antimicrobial susceptibility to fidaxomicin from 6 geographically dispersed medical centers in the United States. This report summarizes data from 2013 to 2016. C. difficile isolates or toxin-positive stools from patients were referred to a central laboratory. Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined by agar dilution. CLSI, EUCAST, or FDA breakpoints were used, where applicable. Toxin gene profiles were characterized by multiplex PCR on each isolate. A random sample of approximately 40% of isolates, stratified by institution and year, was typed by restriction endonuclease analysis (REA). Among 1,889 isolates from 2013 to 2016, the fidaxomicin MIC90 was 0.5 μg/ml; all isolates were inhibited at ≤1 μg/ml. There were decreases in metronidazole and vancomycin MICs over time. Clindamycin resistance remained unchanged (27.3%). An increase in imipenem resistance was observed. By 2015 to 2016, moxifloxacin resistance decreased in all centers. The proportion of BI isolates decreased from 25.5% in 2011 to 2012 to 12.8% in 2015 to 2016 (P < 0.001). The BI REA group correlated with moxifloxacin resistance (BI 84% resistant versus non-BI 12.5% resistant). Fidaxomicin MICs have not changed among C. difficile isolates of U.S. origin over 5 years post licensure. There has been an overall decrease in MICs for vancomycin, metronidazole, moxifloxacin, and rifampin and an increase in isolates resistant to imipenem. Moxifloxacin resistance remained high among the BI REA group, but the proportion of BI isolates has decreased. Continued geographic variations in REA groups and antimicrobial resistance persist.