In Vitro and In Vivo Study of Amphotericin B Formulation with Quaternized Bioreducible Lipidoids
January 10, 2020
Fang Liu, Liu Yang, Yamin Li, Ashlee Junier, Feihe Ma, Jinjin Chen, Haobo Han, Zachary Glass, Xuewei Zhao, Carol A. Kumamoto, Hong Sang, and Qiaobing Xu
CS Biomater Sci Eng. 2020 Feb 10;6(2):1064-1073. Epub 2020 Jan, 2020.
PMID: 33464849 | DOI: 10.1021/acsbiomaterials.9b01722
Invasive fungal infections are well-known causes of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients. Amphotericin B (AmB) is a polyene fungicidal agent with excellent properties of the broad antifungal spectrum, high activity, and relatively rare drug resistance. However, significant toxicities limit the clinical application of AmB and its conventional formulation AmB deoxycholate (Fungizone). Here we investigated nanoparticle formulations of AmB using synthetic biodegradable lipidoids and evaluated their stability, in vitro antifungal efficacy, and in vivo toxicity and pharmacokinetics. We found that the AmB formulated using a mixture of quaternized lipidoid (Q78-O14B) and DSPE-PEG2000 has the size around 70-100 nm and is stable during storage. The formulation showed no hemotoxicity to red blood cells (RBCs) in vitro. It also possesses the highest antifungal activity (in vitro) and lowest toxicity (both in vitro and in vivo). These metrics are significantly superior to the commercial antifungal product Fungizone. Meanwhile, AmB/Q78-O14B-P exhibited prolonged blood circulation in comparison to Fungizone in vivo. In AmB/Q78-O14B-P formulation, AmB was still detectable in the liver, spleen, and lung tissues with a concentration above the minimum inhibitory concentrations 72 h after low-dose intravenous injection. Based on these results, AmB in lipidoid nanoparticle formulation may produce sustained antifungal activity against blood-borne and systemic organ infections. Moreover, the new AmB formulation showed low nephrotoxicity and hepatotoxicity in rats even at high doses, allowing a dramatically wider and safer therapeutic window than Fungizone. This method provides a means to develop much needed antifungal agents that will be more therapeutically efficacious, more affordable (than AmBisome), and less toxic (than Fungizone) for the treatment of systemic fungal infections.