HIV drug resistance (HIVDR) is a major challenge to the effectiveness of antiretroviral therapy. Global efforts in addressing HIVDR require clear, transparent, and replicable reporting in HIVDR studies. We describe the rationale and recommended use of a checklist that should be included in reports of HIVDR incidence and prevalence. After preliminary consultations with experts on HIVDR and establishing the need for guidance on HIVDR reporting, we used a sequential, explanatory, mixed methods approach to create the checklist; together with the accompanying articles, the checklist was reviewed by the authors and validated externally. The checklist for studies on HIVDR prevalence or incidence (CEDRIC-HIV) includes 15 recommended items that would enhance transparency and facilitate interpretation, comparability, and replicability of HIVDR studies. CEDRIC-HIV will help authors of HIVDR studies prepare research reports and assist reviewers and editors in assessments of completeness of reporting. The checklist will also facilitate statistical pooling and interpretation of HIVDR data.